What are the CALTRODE reference electrodes?
CALTRODE are basically Ag/AgCl reference electrodes and they can be used for electrochemical measurements (such as corrosion potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarizations, potentiostatic polarizations, galvanostatic polarizations , electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and others.
Where can I purchase Caltrode reference electrodes and accessories?
CALTRODE Reference Electrodes and accessories can be purchased online at our site www.caltrode.com
Do we ship CALTRODE +800 internationally?
Yes, we have international shipping available.
What is the difference between CALTRODE reference electrodes and others in the market?
CALTRODE Reference Electrodes can be used for electrochemical measurements in HARSH temperatures up to-800°C.
In addition, CALTRODE Reference Electrodes have a simple banana plug cap that can be use to plug the size cable of the users preference or needs.
How do you use CALTRODE REFERENCE ELECTRODES?
The reference electrodes can be directly immersed in the test electrolyte providing that the test electrolyte has an ionic conductivity sufficient to conduct the electrochemical measurements.
Is specialized training to use CALTRODE Products available?
Yes, we are able to provide specialized training and guidance.
You contact us at email@example.com if you have any questions regarding this topic.
Can the CALTRODE reference electrodes solution be customized?
Yes, we can customize the chemicals inside the reference electrode based on the clients needs.
Can CALTRODE reference electrodes dimensions be customized?
Yes, we can customize the size of the reference electrode based on the clients needs as part of a special order. Please contact our sales team at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are interested in customizing a reference electrode.
Are specialized fittings for CALTRODE available?
Yes, we can provide a specific fitting for your product under order. Please contact us at email@example.com if you have any questions regarding fittings and other accessories.
What type of material is the electrode housing?
The electrode housing is made of Quartz and its tip is made of Quartz and a ceramic rod. This tip is uniquely designed to provide ionic connection between inside the electrode and the test electrolyte.
Is the tip in the caltrode products a fritted tip or a thin membrane
The electrode tip is made by sealing a solid Zirconia rod with the quartz in such a way to give a nano-path for the ionic conduction. Therefore, the Zirconia rod and the quartz combination can be considered a fritted tip but with extremely narrow pores.
What is the salt chemistry and reagent purity?
CALTRODE +800 is a Ag/AgCl reference electrode. It has the same principle as the well-known aqueous based Ag/AgCl reference electrode. However, we do not use any aqueous media in our electrode because it is designed to work at high temperatures up to 800°C. We use high purity chemicals with 99.9% purity.
Are the chemicals inside the electrode replaceable?
We provide sealed electrodes therefore it is not possible to add chemicals to it after they are fully consumed.
What is the temperature range of caltrode +800?
CALTRODE + 800 has a temperature range of 20°C to 800°C. In this temperature range (20°C to 800°C), the reference electrode can be directly immersed in the test electrolyte providing that the test electrolyte has an ionic conductivity sufficient to conduct the electrochemical measurements.
This reference electrode can also do electrochemical measurements at temperatures lower than 20°C, (20°C to -10°C), providing that: 1) the reference electrode is immersed in saturated aqueous solution of potassium chloride (KCl) and connected to the test electrolyte through a salt bridge (a half-cell for the reference electrode), 2) the test electrolyte has an ionic conductivity sufficient to conduct the electrochemical measurements.
How can you connect CALTRODE reference electrodes to a potentiostat?
The user can connect CALTRODE Reference Electrodes to any potentiostat using the Plug Adapter or Clip Adapter plugging the end of the reference electrode to the potentiostat terminal (RE).
What is the data output of caltrode reference electrodes?
CALTRODE +800 is Ag/AgCl electrode that measures or controls the electrochemical potential of the sample under test. So, the output data will depend on the test type.
If it is Corrosion Potential Test, the output data will be Potential (Volts) versus Time (sec or min, or h or days, etc).
If the test is Potentiodynamic Polarization, the output data will be Potential (Volts) versus Current (Amperes), etc.
What voltage is measured against which materials in the testing salt?
CALTRODE Reference Electrodes potential vs SCE in sat. KCl at RT was -57mV (very close to the theoretical value). Therefore, its potential vs SHE is about 200mV at RT. At high temperatures, we tested our electrode against a Reversible Oxygen Electrode (ROE) and a Reversible Hydrogen Electrode (RHE) at temperatures up to 400°C in molten salt and it showed no apparent dependence on temperature change and showed about 240mV (±10mV) vs RHE and -800 mV (±10mV) vs ROE.
How linear is the voltage response over the testing temperature or concentration range?
The relation is almost linear. The chemicals inside the electrode are solids. Therefore, the chloride ion activity is always maintained at 1. This electrode has a unique design that allows the ionic conduction between inside and outside the electrode and maintains its reversible potential if the chemicals inside it are not fully consumed.
What is the recommended QC testing procedure?
Main and most important test is the electrode impedance. Acceptable impedance widely varies and depends on the user.
What are the applications caltrode products in oil pipes?
Some of the applications are the following:
To investigate the health of the cathodic protection system of oil pipes.
To investigate the corrosivity of the oil inside the pipes.
To investigate the corrosivity of the soil around the oil pipe.
What kind of drift is typically observed over time?
No drift can be observed if the electrode still has chemicals inside.
What is CALTRODE Products recommended care for prolonged and repeated use?
It is critically important to avoid any thermal shock for the electrode on insertion or taking it out of the test electrolyte. It is also important to keep the electrode in a clean area after use.